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Is it possible to reverse and "cure" chronic kidney disease? How do you treat chronic kidney disease?

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BACKGROUND
It is estimated that more than 20 million Americans may have chronic kidney disease (CKD). That means roughly 1 in 15 Americans. Subjectively speaking, and for some reason, the rate seems to be even higher where I practice (Bradenton / Sarasota, Florida), but that could be related to the older aged population here.
Whether you could "cure" CKD would depend on the cause of kidney disease. Quite often, the cause happens to be a chronic disease that can only be "controlled" (like diabetes or hypertension), but not technically cured. And so is the case with CKD. That is, you can usually not cure and get rid of CKD, but you should be able to control the worsening of your CKD and prevent the fall in your GFR. 
I have discussed in my previous posts about how physicians measure your kidneys' function and the concept of GFR. You may want to take a look at the picture of the "GFR meter" again wherein I had mentioned that the needle on this meter usua…

Can certain herbal medications treat chronic kidney disease (CKD)? Is alternative medicine the cure for CKD?

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I set off to try and answer this question after one of my patients brought along an article that claimed that "nettle leaf lowers creatinine level in the blood". This by extension would mean that it could perhaps cure CKD? I was quick to admit that not once during my typical "western medicine" training had I heard of that claim. To me, CKD had always been this inexorable malady that can be, at best, controlled or slowed down from progressing further. "Cure" is not a word that gets thrown around a lot when you talk about CKD. As I had discussed earlier, once kidney function declines chronically, it can typically not be regained.   
But I do try to have an open mind, the good old scientific temper and all that. So rather than dousing disdain over my patient's excitement, I tried to look for evidence to see if the article's claim was indeed true.

I do not want dialysis: how long can I expect to live, and how would I feel?

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I often see patients in my office who refuse dialysis (should it become necessary) for their advancing kidney disease. I divide these patients in to two categories. The more common category is patients who refuse it because of the "fear of dialysis". They could have trouble understanding dialysis and what potential benefits they could derive from it. They would often make good dialysis candidates who have more to lose than gain by refusing dialysis therapies.

The other category is the patient who rightfully refuses dialysis because she or he would not make a good candidate for such treatment. There could be multiple reasons for that. It could be advanced age and frailty, presence of other severe disease conditions like heart failure or metastatic cancer, etc. In such cases, it is hard to always predict if dialysis would add anything to the quality/quantity of life. And often, patients are simply looking at the "big picture". So the questions that come up in this s…

Can we create an artificial/mechanical kidney to treat kidney failure?

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THE FUTURE IS HERE.....WELL, ALMOST!
It has been a while since researchers started working on developing prototypes of artificial kidneys that could literally be implanted in to a human suffering from kidney failure. Theoretically, this kind of artificial kidney would replace the functions of a normal human kidney. It would flush the blood of all metabolic toxins, maintain all body electrolytes in the narrow range necessary for all life processes, produce hormones like erythropoietin (that drives the bone marrow to produce red blood cells), activate vitamin D, regulate blood pressure, etc etc. Yes, these are all some of the functions that those miracles of nature sitting in your flanks, your kidneys, are doing right now.

Is drinking coffee/caffeine bad for your kidneys?

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This is a question that often comes up when I see patients in my office for treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD). As always, I tend to emphasize the huge role that diet plays in the management of CKD. I noticed that my recent posts might be becoming too wordy, so I am going to keep myself very brief today!

What are "kidney cysts"? Should I be worried? How do you treat them?

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Cysts, or abnormal pockets of fluid filled sacs, are a common finding on imaging studies like ultrasounds that are done on the kidney. I often see concerned patients in consultation about this finding. The question in that situation is...should you be worried if you discovered that you have cyst/s in your kidney?

HOW COMMON ARE KIDNEY CYSTS?
Cysts in the kidney are a pretty common occurrence. They tend to get more prevalent in the older age groups. For instance, 11.5% of individuals aged 50-70, and 22.1% of all individuals aged over 70 yrs will have at least one cyst in the kidney. However, the challenge is to identify whether it is a benign age related finding or something as serious as cancer (which can present as cysts). Cysts often will have no symptoms, and will usually be discovered incidentally as part of imaging of the kidneys for unrelated reasons.

Can over-the-counter pain medications cause kidney disease? How can patients with kidney disease treat their pain?

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The fact that a number of painkillers are available freely over-the-counter (OTC) often gives a lot of people a false sense of security about the safety of these medications. A statement that I here from some of my patients is, "it was available without a prescription, so I thought it wasn't too strong". So very often, patients assume that if a medicine is not too potent, it probably does not have serious side effects either. Sadly, a medication's potency is not necessarily proportional to its side effect profile.

HOW DO PAIN MEDICATIONS DAMAGE THE KIDNEYS: EFFECTS ON KIDNEY FUNCTION
Pain medications can have different renal effects. These can range from reversible, short term reductions in kidney function due to a decrease in the blood supply to the kidneys (called Acute Renal Failure, or Acute Kidney Injury), to a more chronic disease where the kidneys shrink in size, develop a rough and bumpy surface, and demonstrate tissue breakdown called "papillary necrosi…